Coffee is a black beverage that contains caffeine and is obtained from roasted and ground coffee beans. Coffee beans are the fruit of coffee trees in the Rubiaceae family, genus Coffea, with two more important varieties: Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta. Coffea arabica provides the aprons with the finest aromas, while Coffea robusta is bitterer and less fragrant. The quality of coffee is influenced by the place of cultivation, storage and roasting of coffee beans.

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In this coffee section, you can browse a large selection of coffee and espresso beans. It does not matter if you look for a whole bean, pre-ground coffee, decaf, or/and others. We have the widest variety of coffee selections that will suit every taste. You can find excellent coffee from all over the world, from Ethiopia to Brazil. Here you can discover all sorts of Arabica and Robusta flavor and countless other combinations.

Coffee is a brewed beverage made from roasted coffee beans, which are the berry seeds of certain flowering plants of the genus Coffea. The seeds are isolated from the coffee berries to produce a stable original product: unroasted green coffee. The seeds are then roasted, a process that turns them into a consumer product: coffee is roasted, ground into fine particles, and usually steeped in hot water before filtering to make a cup of coffee.

Coffee is dark in color, bitter, and slightly acidic, and has a stimulating effect on the human body, mainly due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular beverages in the world and can be prepared and presented in many ways (for example, espresso, French press, latte, or brewed canned coffee). It is usually served hot, although frozen or iced coffee is common. Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, or cream are often used to reduce bitterness or enhance flavor. It can be paired with coffee cake or other desserts like donuts. Commercial establishments that sell pre-made coffee beverages are called coffee shops or coffee shops.

Clinical studies suggest that moderate consumption of coffee as a stimulant is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, and although the credibility of some long-term studies is questionable, research continues to investigate whether long-term coffee consumption reduces the risk of certain diseases.

The earliest reliable evidence of coffee drinking in the form of a modern beverage appears in the mid-15th century in the modern Yemeni Sufi shrine, where coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to current methods. Yemenis sourced coffee beans from the Ethiopian highlands through intermediaries off the coast of Somalia and started growing them. By the 16th century, the drink had spread to other parts of the Middle East and North Africa, and later to Europe.

The two most common types of coffee beans are C. arabica and C. robusta. Coffee plants are grown in more than 70 countries, mainly in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa. As of 2018, Brazil is the leading grower of coffee beans, producing 35% of the world’s total. Coffee is the main export commodity and the main legal agricultural export for many countries. It is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Unroasted green coffee is the most traded agricultural commodity and one of the most traded commodities, second only to oil. Despite the billions of dollars in coffee sales, those who actually produce the beans live disproportionately in poverty. Critics also point to the negative impact of the coffee industry on the environment and the clearing of land for coffee cultivation and water use. Environmental costs and wage gaps for farmers are causing the fair trade and organic coffee market to expand. In the 16th century, the drink spread to other parts of the Middle East and North Africa, and later to Europe.

If you want to know the difference between Robusta and Arabica, it starts with the growing conditions. For example, the Arabica is a cold-weather lover, while the Robusta is a tropical climate lover. The best place for Arabica is the weather from Northern Thailand because it is colder than in other areas. However, it turns out that Arabica is harder to harvest and nurture because it is attractive to pests. Also, Robusta is the opposite of Arabica. Robusta not only has a different growing location, but it is also easier to harvest. It requires less attention to grow, and it is unattractive to pests. Besides, the differences between these two don’t stop here. They also have different tastes and smells.

The only similarity between Robusta and Arabica is the color brown. Besides, even the beans look different. The Arabica beans have a flat oval shape, while the Robusta is a bit smaller and rounder. The next outstanding difference between the two is their personalities, their flavors. Besides, Arabica has more sugar, and it doesn’t mean it is sweet. It implies that Arabica has a smoother, softer, and lighter taste with the addition of fruity flora tones. Arabica is richer.

Meanwhile, the Robusta has a stronger and more bitter taste. Remember, this does not mean that it isn’t right or low-quality, it implies that Robusta’s personality is just a unique, robust bitter taste. Some of you might prefer Robusta as a perfect cup of Espresso.

History of Coffee

The earliest credible evidence of drinking coffee or knowing about the coffee tree appears in the mid-15th century in the records of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen. It was in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a way similar to how they are prepared today. Coffee is used by Sufi circles to keep their religious rituals awake. Before the coffee plant appeared in Yemen, there are different accounts of the origin of the coffee plant. From Ethiopia, coffee can be imported into Yemen through the Red Sea trade. One account goes to Muhammad Ibn Sa’d for bringing the drink to Aden from the coast of Africa. Other early reports say that Ali bin Omar of the Shadiri Sufi sect was the first to introduce coffee to Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali bin Omar may have encountered coffee during a stay with the companions of King Sadddin of Adal in 1401. The famous 16th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami stated in his writings that a drink called qahwa was developed from a tree in the Zeila region. Coffee was originally exported to Yemen from Ethiopia by Somali traders from Berbera and Zela in modern Somaliland, who sourced from the interior of Harar and Abyssinia. According to Captain Haynes (1839-1854), the colonial administrator of Aden, before the British-controlled Aden occupied the mocha trade in the 19th century, mocha historically imported as much as two-thirds of its coffee from Berbera merchants. century. Since then, most Ethiopian coffee has been exported to Aden via Berbera.

By the 16th century, coffee had spread to the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. During this time, Sufi Baba Budan smuggled the first coffee seeds from the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent from Yemen. Prior to this, all exported coffee was boiled or sterilized. Baba Budan’s portrait depicts him smuggling seven coffee seeds tied to his chest. The first plants grown with these smuggled seeds were grown in Mysore.

By 1600, coffee had spread to Italy, and then to the rest of Europe, Indonesia, and the Americas.

Prosperous trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East (then the Ottoman Empire) brought many commodities to the Venetian port, including coffee. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Despite calls to ban “Muslim drinks,” coffee gained wider acceptance after it was considered a Christian drink by Pope Clement VIII in 1600. The first European café opened in Rome in 1645.

A coffee can from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection. The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee on a large scale. The Dutch later cultivated the crop in Java and Ceylon. The first export of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands took place in 1711.

With the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee also began to become popular in the UK. In his diary in May 1637, John Evelyn recorded the tasting of the drink in Oxford, England, by a man named Nathaniel Evelyn from Balliol College in Crete. Brought by students from Crete, Nathaniel Conopios. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Cafe was established in 1654 and still exists today. Coffee was introduced to France in 1657, and to Austria and Poland after the Battle of Vienna in 1683, when it was obtained from supplies from the defeated Turks.

When coffee was introduced to North America during colonial times, it was not initially as successful as it was in Europe, as alcoholic beverages were still more popular. During the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to stock up on scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was also due to the dwindling supply of tea from British merchants and the 1773 Boston Pour of Tea by many Americans There was a general decision to avoid tea after the incident. After the War of 1812, Britain temporarily cut off the import of tea, and Americans became more and more tasteful of coffee.

During the 18th century, coffee consumption in England declined, giving way to tea. The latter drink was easier to make and became cheaper with the British conquest of India and the tea industry there. In the age of sailing, seamen on Royal Navy ships made alternative coffee by dissolving burnt bread in hot water.

In the 1720s, Frenchman Gabriel de Clieu brought a coffee plant to Martinique, a French territory in the Caribbean Sea, from which most of the world’s cultivated Arabica coffee is grown. Coffee thrived in the climate and spread throughout the Americas. Coffee was grown in Santo Domingo (now Haiti) from 1734, and by 1788 it supplied half of the world’s coffee. The conditions under which slaves worked on coffee plantations were a factor that occurred shortly after the Haitian Revolution. The coffee industry there never fully recovered. It made a brief comeback in 1949 when Haiti became the world’s third-largest coffee exporter but has since declined rapidly.

Meanwhile, coffee was introduced to Brazil in 1727, but its cultivation did not gain momentum until independence in 1822. Large swathes of rainforest have since been cleared for coffee plantations, first around Rio de Janeiro and later around São Paulo. Brazil went from exporting essentially no coffee in 1800 to becoming an important regional producer in 1830 to the largest producer in the world in 1852. In 1910-20, Brazil exported about 70% of the world’s coffee, Colombia, Guatemala, and Venezuela exported half of the remaining 30%, while Old World production accounted for less than 5% of world exports.

In the second half of the 19th century, farming began in many countries in Central America, almost all of which involved mass displacement and exploitation of indigenous peoples. Poor conditions led to many uprisings, coups, and bloody repressions of peasants. The notable exception is Costa Rica, where a lack of readily available labor has hindered the formation of large farms. Smaller farms and more equal conditions eased the turmoil of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Rapid growth in coffee production in South America in the second half of the 19th century was matched by growth in consumption in developed countries, although this growth was not as pronounced as in the United States, where population growth was high and per capita consumption doubled between 1860 and 1920. for a while. Although the United States was not the largest coffee drinker at the time (the Nordic countries, Belgium, and the Netherlands all had comparable or higher per capita consumption), by 1860 it was the largest coffee consumer in the world due to its sheer size, By 1920, about half of all coffee produced globally was consumed in the United States.

Coffee has become an important cash crop in many developing countries. More than 100 million people in developing countries already rely on coffee as their main source of income. It has become a major export and backbone for African countries such as Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Ethiopia, and many Central American countries.

Coffee Cultivation

The traditional way of growing coffee is to place 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season. This method loses about 50% of the seed’s potential as about half fails to germinate. A more efficient coffee growing process used in Brazil is to grow seedlings in a nursery and then grow them outdoors after 6 to 12 months. In the first few years of cultivation, coffee is often intercropped with food crops such as corn, beans, or rice as farmers become familiar with its requirements. Coffee plants grow in a specific area between the tropical constellations Cancer and Capricorn, called the bean belt or coffee belt.

Of the two main varieties grown, Arabica is generally preferred over Robusta. Compared to Arabica, Robusta tends to be bitter and less flavorful but has a better taste. For these reasons, approximately three-quarters of the coffee grown worldwide is Arabica. Robusta strains also contain 40-50% more caffeine than Arabica. Therefore, the variety is used as an inexpensive substitute for Arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Premium robusta beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends to provide a richer taste and better froth head (called crema).

In addition, Coffea canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be grown at lower altitudes and warmer climates where C. arabica will not thrive. The robusta strain was first collected in 1890 from the Lomani River, a tributary of the Congo River, and was transported from the Free State of Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) to Brussels to Java around 1900. Further propagation from Java has established robusta plantations in many countries. In particular, the spread of Arabica’s vulnerable coffee leaf rust has accelerated the uptake of resistant robusta. Hemileia mastatrix is a fungal pathogen that produces light rust-colored spots on the underside of coffee plant leaves. Hemileia mastatrix only grows on the leaves of coffee plants. Coffee leaf rust has been found in almost all coffee-producing countries.

Mycena citricolor is another threat to coffee plants, mainly in Latin America. Mycena citricolor, commonly known as American leaf spot, is a fungus that can affect entire coffee plants. It can grow on leaves, causing the leaves to fall off the plant frequently.

More than 900 insect species have been recorded as pests of coffee crops worldwide. Of these, more than a third were beetles, and more than a quarter were bugs. About 20 species of nematodes, 9 species of mites, and several species of snails and slugs also attack crops. Birds and rodents sometimes eat coffee berries, but their impact is minimal compared to invertebrates. In general, Arabica is a species that is more susceptible to invertebrate predation. Every part of the coffee tree is attacked by different animals. Nematodes attack roots, coffee borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material, and leaves are attacked by the larvae of more than 100 species of butterflies and moths.

Heavy spraying of pesticides often proves disastrous because the pest’s predators are more sensitive than the pest itself. Instead, integrated pest management has been developed, using techniques such as targeted treatment of pest outbreaks and management of the crop environment away from conditions conducive to pests. Scale-infested branches are often clipped and left on the ground, prompting the scale parasites to attack scale not only on fallen branches but also in plants.

The 2mm-long coffee borer beetle is the most destructive pest to the world’s coffee industry, destroying up to 50% or more of coffee berries on plantations in most coffee-producing countries. An adult female beetle bites a small hole in a coffee berry and lays 35 to 50 eggs. Internally, offspring grow, mate, and then emerge and disperse from commercially destroyed berries, repeating the cycle. Insecticides are mostly ineffective because the larvae are protected within the berry nursery, but they are easily preyed on by birds when they emerge. American oriole, red-crowned warbler, and other insectivorous birds have been shown to reduce coffee berry borer populations by 50 percent in Costa Rican coffee plantations when woods are nearby.

Beans from different countries can often be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics depend not only on the region where the coffee is grown but also on the genetic subspecies and processing. Varieties are often known for the regions they grow in, such as Colombia, Java, and Kona.

Arabica beans are mainly grown in Latin America, East Africa, or Asia, while Robusta beans are grown in Central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia, and Brazil.

Coffee Production

In 2020, the world production of green coffee beans was 175,647,000 60kg bags, with Brazil leading the way, accounting for 39% of the total production. Vietnam, Indonesia, and Colombia are other major producers.

As of 2021, there are no publicly available synthetic coffee products, but several bioeconomy companies have reportedly produced the first products that are highly similar at the molecular level and are close to commercialization.

Coffee Processing

Coffee berries and their seeds go through several processes before becoming the familiar roasted coffee. Berries are traditionally hand-picked selectively; this is a labor-intensive method that selects only berries that are at their peak ripening. More commonly, crops are picked in strips, and all berries are harvested at the same time, either by hand or by machine ripening. After picking, green coffee is processed using one of two methods – a dry method, which is often simpler and less labor-intensive, and a wet method using batch fermentation, where the lots of water. This process usually results in a milder coffee.

They are then sorted according to ripeness and color, usually by removing the pulp from the berries by machine and then fermenting the seeds to remove the sticky mucilage layer still present on the seeds. After fermentation is complete, the seeds are rinsed with large amounts of freshwater to remove fermentation residues, resulting in a large amount of coffee wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried.

The best (but least used) way to dry coffee is to use a drying table. In this method, beaten and fermented coffee is spread thinly on a raised bed, allowing air to pass through all sides of the coffee, and the coffee is blended by hand. In this method, drying occurs more uniformly and fermentation is less likely. Most African coffee is dried in this way, and some coffee farms around the world are starting to use this traditional method.

Next, the coffee is classified and labeled as green coffee. Some companies use air cylinders to pump hot air to dry coffee seeds, although this is usually in places with very high humidity.

A type of Asian coffee called kopi luwak goes through a special process, made from coffee berries eaten by the Asian palm civet, through its digestive tract and eventually harvesting the beans from the feces. Coffee brewed this way is one of the most expensive in the world, with beans fetching $160 a pound or $30 a cup. Kopi luwak coffee is said to have a distinctive rich, slightly smoky aroma and taste, with a hint of chocolate, due to the action of digestive enzymes breaking down the protein of the bean to facilitate partial fermentation.

In Thailand, black ivory coffee beans are fed to elephants, whose digestive enzymes reduce the bitterness of coffee beans collected from dung. The beans sell for as much as $1,100 a kilogram ($500 a pound), making them the most expensive coffee in the world and three times more expensive than palm civet beans.

Roasting Coffee

The next step in the process is roasting the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, with very few exceptions, such as coffee extracted from green coffee beans, which are roasted before consumption. It can be baked and sold by a supplier or baked at home. The roasting process affects the taste of the beverage by physically and chemically changing the coffee beans. As the water loses and the volume increases, the bean loses weight, causing it to become less dense. The density of the coffee beans also affects the strength and packaging requirements of the coffee.

The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), although seeds of different varieties differ in moisture and density and are therefore roasted at different speeds. During roasting, caramelization occurs when high temperatures break down starches, turning them into simple sugars that start to brown, changing the color of the beans.

Sucrose is quickly lost during roasting and may disappear completely in darker roasts. Aromatic oils and acids weaken during roasting, changing flavors; at 205 °C (401 °F), other oils begin to form. One of these oils is cafestol, which is produced at temperatures around 200 °C (392 °F) and largely determines the aroma and flavor of the coffee.

Roasting is the final step in processing the beans in their intact state. During the last treatment, while still in the bean state, more caffeine breaks down above 235 °C (455 °F). Dark roasting is the most important step in the processing of beans to remove the most caffeine. Don’t confuse dark roasts with the decaffeination process, though.

Grading Roasted Beans

Depending on the color of the baked beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as light, medium-light, medium, medium-dark, dark, or very dark. A more accurate way to discern the degree of roasting is to measure the reflected light of roasted seeds illuminated by a light source in the near-infrared spectrum. This sophisticated light meter uses a process called spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the relative degree of roast or flavor development of the roasted coffee.

Roast Characteristics

The degree of roasting has an impact on coffee flavor and body. Darker roasts are generally bolder because they are lower in fiber and higher in sugar. Lighter roasts have more complex flavors, so the flavors of aromatic oils and acids that would otherwise be spoiled by longer roasting times are more intense. Roasting does not change the amount of caffeine in the beans, but when the beans are measured by volume, the amount of caffeine decreases because the beans expand during roasting.

The skin that remains on the seeds after processing produces a small amount of chaff during the roasting process. The chaff is usually removed from the seeds by air movement, although small amounts are added to dark roasted coffee to absorb the oil on the seeds.


Coffee seeds are decaffeinated while the seeds are still green. Many methods can decaffeinate coffee, but all involve soaking the green seeds in hot water (often called the “Swiss water method”) or steaming them, and then using a solvent to dissolve the oil with caffeine. Decaffeination is usually done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.


Coffee is best stored in airtight containers made of ceramic, glass, or inactive metal. Higher quality prepackaged coffees often have a one-way valve that prevents air from entering while allowing the coffee to release gas. The freshness and flavor of coffee are preserved away from moisture, heat, and light. Coffee tends to absorb strong odors in food, which means it should stay away from those odors. Storing coffee in the refrigerator is not recommended due to the presence of moisture that can lead to spoilage. The exterior walls of a building facing the sun may heat the interior of the house, and this heat may damage the coffee near such walls. The heat from a nearby oven can also damage stored coffee.

In 1931, a method of packaging coffee in airtight vacuum cans was introduced. Roasted coffee is packaged and then 99% air removed, allowing the coffee to be stored indefinitely until the can is opened. Today, this method is used in large quantities for coffee in most parts of the world.

Brewing Coffee

Coffee beans must be ground and brewed to make a beverage. Criteria for the selection method include flavor and economy. Almost any method of making coffee involves grinding the beans and mixing them with hot water long enough for the flavors to come out, but not so long that the bitter compounds are extracted. The liquid can be eaten after the waste residue is removed. Brewing considerations include the fineness of the grind, the way water is used to extract the flavor, the ratio of coffee grounds to water (the brew ratio), additional flavorings (such as sugar, milk, and spices), and the technology to be used for separation. over the ground. Optimal coffee extraction occurs between 91 and 96 °C (196 and 205 °F). The ideal holding temperature range is 85 to 88 °C (185 to 190 °F) up to 93 °C (199 °F), and the ideal operating temperature is 68 to 79 °C (154 to 174 °F). The recommended brew ratio for non-espresso coffee is 55 to 60 grams of coffee grounds per liter of water or two tablespoons in a 150 to 180 ml (5 to 6 US fl oz) cup.

Roasted coffee beans can be ground in a roaster, grocery store, or at home. Most coffee is roasted and ground in a roastery and sold in packages, although roasted coffee beans can be ground at home immediately before consumption. Although less common, it is also possible to bake green beans at home.

Coffee beans can be ground in a variety of ways. Burr grinders use rotating elements to shear seeds; blade grinders use high-speed moving blades to cut seeds; mortars and pestles are used to grind seeds. For most brewing methods, a burr grinder is considered superior because the grind is more uniform and the grind size can be adjusted.

Grind types are often named after the brewing method they are commonly used in. A turkey grind is the best grind, while a coffee filter or French press is the coarsest grind. The most common grinds are somewhere between these two extremes: most home coffee brewers use a medium grind.

Coffee can be brewed in several ways. It can be boiled, soaked, or pressurized.

Brewing coffee was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. It is prepared by grinding or mashing the seeds into a fine powder, which is then added to water and boiled for no more than an instant in a pot called a cezve, or μπρίκι in Greek: bríki (from Turkish ibrik). This produces an espresso with a layer of foam on the surface and sediment (not drinkable) that settles to the bottom of the cup.

Coffee filters and automatic coffee machines use gravity to brew coffee. In automatic coffee machines, hot water drips onto coffee grounds housed in a paper, plastic, or perforated metal coffee filters, allowing the water to seep into the ground coffee while extracting the coffee’s oils and flavors. The liquid drips through the coffee and filter into a glass bottle or jug, and the used coffee grounds remain in the filter.

In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above the filter by steam pressure created by boiling. The water then seeps from the ground, and the process repeats until terminated by being removed from the heat, by an internal timer, or by a thermostat that turns off the heater when the entire pot reaches a certain temperature.

Coffee can be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press. Combine ground coffee and hot water in a cylindrical container and brew for a few minutes. A round filter fits tightly into a cylinder fixed to the plunger and is pushed down from the top to force the ground down. The filter keeps the coffee grounds at the bottom as the coffee is poured out of the container. Since the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oil remains in the liquid, making it a stronger beverage. This brewing method leaves more sediment than coffee made with automatic coffee machines. Proponents of the French press point out that using the right type of grinder can minimize sediment problems: they claim that a rotary blade grinder cuts coffee beans to various sizes, including fine coffee grounds that remain as sludge in the cups. Bottom, the burr grinder grinds the beans evenly into a consistent-sized grind, allowing the coffee to settle evenly and be captured by the press. Within the first minute of brewing, 95% of the caffeine is released from the coffee beans.

The espresso method forces hot pressurized and evaporated water through ground coffee. Due to the high pressure (usually 9 bar) brewed, espresso beverages are more concentrated (up to 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee and water produced by gravity brewing methods) and have a more complex constitution of physical and chemical composition. The prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface. Other methods of pressurizing water include Moka pots and vacuum coffee makers.

Cold brew coffee is made by soaking coarsely ground coffee beans in cold water for several hours, then filtering. This results in a brew with lower acidity than most hot brewing methods.


Typical coffee grounds prepared with tap water contain 40 mg of caffeine per 100 grams and no significant levels of essential nutrients. However, in espresso, probably due to its higher suspended solids content, there are significant amounts of magnesium, B vitamins, niacin, and riboflavin, and 212 mg of caffeine per 100 grams of ground coffee.


After brewing, coffee can be served in a number of ways. Drip, percolation, or French press/cafe coffee can be served as white coffee with dairy products (such as milk or cream) or dairy substitutes, or as black coffee without such additives. It can be sweetened with sugar or artificial sweeteners. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

There are a number of possible presentations for espresso-based coffee. In its most basic form, espresso is served alone as a cup or short black, or with hot water, when it’s called a Caffè Americano. Unlike Caffè Americano, double espresso is poured into equal parts of water, preserving crema for a long black. Milk is added to espresso in many forms: steamed milk makes a latte, equal parts steamed milk and milk froth make a cappuccino, and a dollop of hot frothed milk on top makes a macchiato. The pure white is prepared by adding steamed hot milk (micro-foam) to the espresso, which brings out the flavor and the texture is exceptionally soft. It has less milk than a latte, but both are coffee varieties that can have milk added to create a decorative surface pattern. This effect is called latte art.

Coffee can also be mixed with alcohol to make a variety of beverages: it is mixed with whiskey in Irish coffee to form the basis of alcoholic coffee liqueurs such as Kahlúa and Tia Maria. Even without the addition of real coffee beans, dark beers such as Stout and Porter can have a chocolate or coffee-like taste from roasting the grains.

Instant Coffee

Many products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee or who do not have access to a coffee machine. Instant coffee is dried to a soluble powder or freeze-dried into granules that dissolve quickly in hot water. Originally invented in 1907, it quickly became popular in many countries after the war, with Nescafé being the most popular product. Many consumers believe that the convenience of preparing a cup of instant coffee more than makes up for the perceived inferior taste, although since the late 1970s instant coffee has been prepared in a similar way to the taste of freshly brewed coffee. Parallel to the rapid rise of instant coffee A coffee the vending machine was invented in 1947 and widely distributed since the 1950s.

Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for years, especially in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Vending machines usually sell canned coffee in a variety of flavors, like brewed or percolated coffee, both hot and cold. Convenience and grocery stores in Japan also have a plethora of bottled coffee drinks, which are often slightly sweetened and premixed with milk. Bottled coffee beverages are also consumed in the United States.

Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional settings where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people simultaneously. It is described as having as good a taste as a lower-grade robusta and costs about 10 cents a cup to produce. These machines can process up to 500 cups per hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.

Coffee Consumption

The Nordic countries are the countries with the highest coffee consumption; Finland has the highest consumption in the world, close to or more than twice that of Brazil; Italy; France; Greece; times, the United States ranked 25th in 2018. On a per-capita basis, the top 10 coffee consuming countries per year are:

  1. Finland – 12 kg (26 lb)
  2. Norway – 9.9 kg (21 lb 13 oz)
  3. Iceland – 9 kg (20 lb)
  4. Denmark – 8.7 kg (19 lb 3 oz)
  5. Netherlands – 8.4 kg (18 lb 8 oz)
  6. Sweden – 8.2 kg (18 lb 1 oz)
  7. Switzerland – 7.9 kg (17 lb 7 oz)
  8. Belgium – 6.8 kg (15 lb 0 oz)
  9. Luxembourg – 6.5 kg (14 lb 5 oz)
  10. Canada – 6.5 kg (14 lb 5 oz)

Fair Trade

The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated price before harvest, started with the Max Havelaar Foundation’s labeling scheme in the Netherlands in the late 1980s. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons (7,050,000 metric tons produced globally) were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons of 6,685,000 metric tons were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%. Numerous fair trade impact studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a mixed impact on the communities where it is grown. Many studies are skeptical of fair trade, reporting that it tends to erode the bargaining power of those not involved. The earliest fair trade coffee was an effort to import Guatemalan coffee into Europe as “Indio Solidarity Coffee”.

Since the establishment of organizations such as the European Fair Trade Association (1987), fair-trade coffee production and consumption have increased as some local and national coffee chains have begun to offer fair trade alternatives. For example, in April 2000, after a year-long campaign by human rights group Global Exchange, Starbucks decided to offer fair trade coffee in its stores. Since September 2009, all Starbucks espresso beverages in the UK and Ireland have been made with Fairtrade and Shared Planet certified coffee.

A 2005 study in Belgium concluded that consumers’ buying behavior was inconsistent with their positive attitudes towards ethical products. An average of 46% of European consumers claim to be willing to pay more for ethical products, including fair trade products such as coffee. The study found that the majority of respondents were unwilling to pay a 27% real price premium for fair trade coffee.

Frequently Asked Question

At Cafendo, we want to help you learn everything about coffee. We’ve scoured the web for the most frequently asked questions about coffee and compiled a collection of questions and answers. From how coffee is made to how to remove coffee stains, we answer all your questions!

How much caffeine is in coffee?

Caffeine is a part of an adult’s daily routine. However, do you know how much caffeine you can find in a cup of coffee? The regular coffee dosage can be up to 400 milligrams of caffeine for an adult. However, each person has a different sensitivity to caffeine. We can keep in mind that the caffeine content in a coffee can alter, depending on the brewing process, preparation mode, and processing time. Below you can find some details about caffeine amounts in each coffee type:

As you can see, the amount of caffeine in these drinks isn’t too much. However, if you want to enjoy a single cup of coffee every day, you have nothing to worry about the caffeine quantity. Another interesting fact is that if you notice the decaffeinated coffee drinks contain less caffeine than regular coffee.

How much coffee per cup?

To make a great coffee is it best to know how much coffee per cup is needed. Following the correct ratio, paying attention to the grind size, water temperature, and brew time makes a good coffee cup.

To brew most kinds of coffee, you can follow something called the Golden Ratio. The Golden Ratio is two tablespoons of coffee per cup, and a standard coffee cup is 177 ml. However, you can always adjust the coffee regarding your preferences, but two tablespoons will generally produce the best and richest coffee. The Golden Ratio is applicable for Espresso, drip, pour-over, french press, and percolator.

How many calories are in a cup of coffee?

The amount of calories varies greatly depending on the type of coffee you drink. Adding extra ingredients like milk, sugar, and syrup all directly affect the calorie content of coffee. A standard cup of black coffee (about 8 ounces) has 1 calorie, but a cappuccino, for example, can contain between 60 and 160 calories, depending on the type of milk you’re taking and the size of the cappuccino. For low-calorie coffee, swap out sugar for sweetener and whole milk for skim or soy (or skip milk at all!).

How long does caffeine last in coffee?

The half-life of caffeine is 4-6 hours. This means that after the first half-hour of coffee, the amount of caffeine in your system will be cut in half after about 5 hours. This is why people often feel the need for a second cup of coffee during the day, as caffeine levels have dropped significantly over the past few hours. If you are a smoker, the half-life of coffee is only 3 hours.

How is coffee decaffeinated?

Coffee can decaffeinate through several different processes. When decaffeinated, there will still be trace amounts of caffeine—generally, it’s about 0.1-0.3% caffeine. All decaffeination processes take place while the beans are green (unroasted). There are solvent-based processes – indirect solvent processes and direct solvent processes – and non-solvent processes – Swiss water process and carbon dioxide process. The solvent-based process involves removing caffeine from coffee beans with the help of chemical solvents. The Swiss water process relies on osmosis and solubility to remove caffeine from the beans by soaking them in hot water, while the carbon dioxide process soaks the beans and forces liquid carbon dioxide into the beans to extract the caffeine.

How to use a Coffee Press/French Press/Cafetiere?

Using the coffee machine is simple and easy. If you have a coffee grinder, grind your beans first. It’s okay if you don’t use store-bought coffee. Scoop your coffee (about a tablespoon or more) into the jar. Pour some pre-boiled water into the jar and make sure you know how much water and space your press needs – you don’t want it to overflow! When done, give it a quick stir before adding the strainer and lid. Let it sit for three to four minutes, then slowly press down on the filter. Once you press it all the way to the bottom, your coffee is ready to pour!

What is the difference between filter and instant coffee?

All stores offer filter coffee and instant coffee, but if you’re not a professional coffee drinker, the distinction can be confusing. Instant coffee is pre-brewed coffee that can be rehydrated by adding hot water. It dissolves and is ready to drink immediately. Easier to get his coffee, probably in the work break room. Filter coffee, on the other hand, is ground roasted beans that you pour boiling water over and filter, leaving only the fresh coffee – that’s what a French press is for.

How many cups of coffee is it safe to drink a day?

On average, the average person can safely drink 3-5 cups of coffee a day. Ultimately, it’s up to you to understand how your body responds to coffee and decide when you shouldn’t drink it anymore. If you respond well to a lot of caffeine and don’t get jittery or stomach aches, then you can drink what you want, but if you know drinking a lot of caffeine will keep you awake at night and headaches in the morning, reduce to 3 cups a day. Drinking more than 5 cups of coffee a day has been linked to elevated cholesterol, so if you are a heavy coffee drinker, 5 cups are recommended.

Is coffee bad for you?

Overall, coffee can have many positive effects on the body. Its health benefits include a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, increased resting metabolic rate, and even a lower risk of certain types of cancer. Coffee can help prevent cognitive decline and enhance long-term memory, and may even reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to these physical effects, coffee also contains a lot of nutrients and antioxidants such as vitamins B2, B3, and B5. The negative effects of coffee are far less—indulging in coffee and experiencing withdrawal symptoms such as headaches is one example. The positives largely outweigh the negatives, but if you drink a lot of coffee, it may disrupt your sleep due to your high caffeine intake.

What makes a good coffee?

Good coffee ultimately comes down to taste – but as some will tell you, there are ways to perfect your coffee. The trick is to buy your own beans and grind them if necessary, as the beans can go bad if left open for too long, and the flavor of the ground beans can change over time. If you live in an area with hard water, such as London, buying a water filter can help ensure a smooth coffee, and pay attention to temperature and brew time, as coffee can burn easily. Coffee also has a brewed flavor, so a clean coffee maker is always a must. Of course, you don’t need to buy coffee beans and grind them yourself, as you may prefer coffee that you buy more often, but coffee beans are known to taste better.

Can you drink coffee while pregnant?

You can drink coffee during pregnancy, but it is recommended that you limit your caffeine intake to around 200 mg, which is roughly the equivalent of two cups of coffee. Drinking more than this amount during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage or having a low-birth-weight baby. Ultimately, the decision to consume caffeine is up to you, but you can reduce your intake by switching to decaffeinated beverages and small cups of coffee.

Why does coffee make me feel tired?

Coffee is known for its high natural caffeine content – so why does it make some of us tired? There are many reasons why caffeine affects you differently than it does others. For example, one reason might be that drinking coffee for so long means you’ve developed a mild tolerance, so you’d expect a caffeine deficiency. Another reason could be the properties of coffee as a diuretic – you may be dehydrated, and when the caffeine wears off, you may be more tired than usual.

Which has more caffeine – coffee or tea?

The amount of caffeine in an average cup of tea is significantly lower than that in coffee. It does have more caffeine in its dry form before preparing and brewing the tea, but once brewed, its caffeine content drops. We also use less tea to make cups than coffee. A 1-cup (8-ounce) cup of coffee contains about 94 mg of caffeine, while an 8-ounce cup of tea contains only 26 mg.

What coffee has the most caffeine?

The amount of caffeine in coffee is determined by several factors. First, the type of coffee bean used affects its caffeine content. Robusta coffee beans have the highest caffeine content, while Arabica coffee beans contain half of it. A longer brew time also means more caffeine—for example, a French press brews for about 4 minutes, so it contains a fair amount of caffeine. Espresso, on the other hand, is only brewed for 20-30 seconds, but because of its portion size, the caffeine content is more concentrated and therefore higher. Regular coffee had the highest amount due to its brew time (94mg), but the espresso was a close second (63mg). In the back are filter coffee, lattes, and cappuccinos.

How to clean coffee makers?

Coffee makers are breeding grounds for mold spores. Cleaning your machine should be part of your monthly cleaning routine to ensure your coffee tastes good and healthy. The key to cleaning your machine is to use white vinegar — mix 3 cups of vinegar with 6 cups of water (or half of your machine hasn’t been cleaned in a while), or use citric acid and hot water. Never use bleach or baking soda as mixing them with vinegar and water can be toxic and damage your machine. Once you have this mixture, add a filter to your coffee maker, as usual, then add the mixture where you would normally add water. Turn on the machine and let the mixture go through completely before removing the filter. Let it cool, then rinse the coffee maker and repeat with plain cold water.

How to remove coffee stains?

Coffee stains can be deep and difficult to remove. Immediately after coffee spills, blot the stain with paper, then rinse it off with cold water. These two simple steps usually help remove the stain, but if it’s stubborn, you can try adding detergent or vinegar to remove it. Rub with cleaner, let sit for a few minutes, then rinse off. Using white vinegar and water, mix some cleaner into a paste and add it to the stain as long as you’re sure it won’t cause any discoloration. Scrub the stain and rinse thoroughly.

Why did coffee become popular?

Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world, but how did it come to be? The history of coffee beans goes back centuries. Coffee originated in Ethiopia and the Arabian Peninsula and was as popular then as it is now. Coffeehouses began to gain traction in Europe around the 17th century, and the famous Boston Tea Party turned tea into coffee in 1773, leading to a coffee boom in the United States. Soldiers quickly became addicted to coffee during World War II as they used it to maintain high energy levels, and the invention of television quickly became a platform to promote instant coffee. From here came the rise of modern cafes, before coffee giant Starbucks. Since then, coffee has continued to be the most popular beverage worldwide.